www.igroup.org – project consortium
a multi-disciplinary project consortium.
addresses new interfaces between humans and the real and virtual environment.
defines itself through project work.
We understand the sense of presence as the subjective sense of being in a virtual environment. Importantly, the sense of presence can be separated from the ability of a technology to immerse a user. While this immersion is a variable of the technology and can be desribed objectively, presence is a variable of a user's experience. Therefore, we obtain measures of the sense of presence from subjective rating scales.
The Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) is a scale for measuring the sense of presence experienced in a virtual environment (VE). It has been constructed using a large pool of items and two survey waves with approximately 500 participants. It was originally constructed in German, but is now also available in English and Dutch. The item pool included both previously published items (translated into German) and new items. The IPQ, as we now publish and release it, also includes both types of items.
The current version of the IPQ has three subscales and one additional general item not belonging to a subcale. The three subscales emerged from principal component analyses and can be regarded as fairly independent factors. They are:
The additional general item assesses the general "sense of being there", and has high loadings on all three factors, with an especially strong loading on Spatial Presence.
The release of the questionnaire has the goal of making it available free of charge. Note that the English version of the questionnaire contains some items previously published by other authors. Those items are marked in the questionnaire.
Along with the items, we also provide data collected with the IPQ items. The data are supplemented by information on the participants and the technology used. You may realize that the publication of raw data is still a rather unusal step in the scientific community. The goal of this step is to provide you with a solid basis for understanding the data you collect with the IPQ. Furthermore, we strongly encourage all researchers who are collecting data with the IPQ to add those data to the database.
To learn more about how the IPQ was developed and tested, please refer to:
Regenbrecht, H., & Schubert, T. (2002). Real and illusory interaction enhance presence in virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11(4), 425-434.
Schubert, T. (2003). The sense of presence in virtual environments: A three-component scale measuring spatial presence, involvement, and realness. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 15, 69-71.
Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. (1999). Embodied Presence in Virtual Environments. In Ray Paton & Irene Neilson (Eds.), Visual Representations and Interpretations (pp. 269-278). London: Springer-Verlag.
Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. (2001). The experience of presence: Factor analytic insights. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 266-281.
Schubert, T., & Regenbrecht, H. (2002). Wer hat Angst vor virtueller Realität? Phobie, Therapie und Präsenz in virtuellen Welten [Who is afraid of virtual reality? Phobia, therapy and presence and virtual worlds]. In Bente, G. (Hrsg.), Virtuelle Realitäten [Virtual Realities], pp. 255-274. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
If you want to have a preprint / pdf-version of these papers, or if you have further questions, please mail us:
Brown, S., Ladeira, I., Winterbottom, C., & Blake, E. (2003). The effects of mediation in a storytelling virtual environment. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2879, 102-111. An investigation on levels of mediation: Telling San stories in a virtual environment